Dreyer, Alexander M. and Herrmann, Christoph S. and Rieger, Jochem W. (2017) Tradeoff between user experience and BCI classification accuracy with frequency modulated steady-state visual evoked potentials. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 11. ISSN 1662-5161

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Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) have been widely employed for the control of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) because they are very robust, lead to high performance, and allow for a high number of commands. However, such flickering stimuli often also cause user discomfort and fatigue, especially when several light sources are used simultaneously. Different variations of SSVEP driving signals have been proposed to increase user comfort. Here, we investigate the suitability of frequency modulation of a high frequency carrier for SSVEP-BCIs. We compared BCI performance and user experience between frequency modulated (FM) and traditional sinusoidal (SIN) SSVEPs in an offline classification paradigm with four independently flickering light-emitting diodes which were overtly attended (fixated). While classification performance was slightly reduced with the FM stimuli, the user comfort was significantly increased. Comparing the SSVEPs for covert attention to the stimuli (without fixation) was not possible, as no reliable SSVEPs were evoked. Our results reveal that several, simultaneously flickering, light emitting diodes can be used to generate FM-SSVEPs with different frequencies and the resulting occipital electroencephalography (EEG) signals can be classified with high accuracy. While the performance we report could be further improved with adjusted stimuli and algorithms, we argue that the increased comfort is an important result and suggest the use of FM stimuli for future SSVEP-BCI applications.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Publiziert mit Hilfe des DFG-geförderten Open Access-Publikationsfonds der Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg.
Uncontrolled Keywords: steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP), frequency modulation, brain-computer interface (BCI), electroencephalography (EEG), spatial attention
Subjects: Philosophy and psychology > Psychology
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > Department of Psychology
Date Deposited: 27 Sep 2017 09:08
Last Modified: 17 Nov 2017 10:58
URI: https://oops.uni-oldenburg.de/id/eprint/3324
URN: urn:nbn:de:gbv:715-oops-34059
DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2017.00391

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